Atherosclerosis interactive video
If the foam cells are unable to process the oxidized ldl particles and recruit high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles to remove the fats and cholesterol, then foam cells will continue to expand and eventually rupture. Rupture of foam cells results in the release of oxidized materials and fats in the artery wall that causes yet another cycle of inflammatory responses that attract more white blood cells and further inflames the artery. Fatty streaks will therefore contain both active cells that produce inflammation in addition to dead cell remnants. At this point, there is a migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (vsmcs) to these sites of inflammation, where endogenously released substances including platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf), fibroblast growth factor (fgf endothelin-1, and il-1 influence additional vsmc migration and proliferation. Recent research has shown that vsmcs respond to vascular injury by switching from the quiescent contractile phenotype to a proinflammatory phenotype. Additionally, there will be deposition of extracellular matrix by vsmcs and further T-cell recruitment to these sites.
Vldl molecules are produced by the liver from triacylglycerol and cholesterol from the diet that was not used during the synthesis of bile acids. These vldl molecules then lose triglyceride through the action of lipoprotein lipase, thus making them smaller and denser, containing a higher proportion of cholesterol esters. Lowered protein/lipid ratios result in less dense lipoproteins. Ldl particles voor function as the primary major cholesterol carriers in the blood, with each particle containing approximately 1,500 molecules of cholesterol ester. It is thought that the retention of ldl particles, in conjunction with inflammation, is what results in endothelial cell dysfunction that instigates the process of atherosclerosis. Ldl particles and their content are susceptible to oxidation by free radicals, and are more prone to oxidation once inside the blood vessel wall. As a result, endothelial cells respond to these inflammatory processes by attracting monocyte white blood cells from the blood into the arterial walls, therefore transforming them to macrophages. Endothelial cells Therefore following endothelial cell dysfunction, there is an accumulation of white blood cells, as mostly macrophages and ldl particles. Macrophages (and some t-lymphocytes) ingest oxidized ldl particles, which results in foam cell formation, otherwise described in histopathology as lipid-laden macrophages. Buildup of these lipid-laden macrophages appear grossly as a thin layer of yellowish-white fatty streaks within the inner layers of artery walls beginning during childhood, and continue expanding over time.
Atherosclerosis - cardiovascular Disorders - msd manual
Ascending aorta - example of a hpv large elastic artery medium-sized muscular arteries (e.g., coronary and renal arteries) tijdens - the media is composed primarily of smooth muscle cells, with elastin limited to the internal and external elastic lamina. Left coronary artery - example of a medium-sized muscular artery Small arteries (2 mm or less in diameter) and arterioles (20 to 100 μm in diameter) - the media in these vessels is mostly composed of smooth muscle cells. Blood flow resistance is regulated at the arterioles and therefore pressure will drop during passage through the arterioles, causing blood flow to become more steady rather than pulsatile. This is due to the fact that under poiseuilles law, the resistance to fluid flow is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the diameter (i.e., halving the diameter increases resistance 16-fold which means that small changes in arteriolar lumen size will have profound effects. Pathogenesis Inflammatory processes that set off a cascade of responses and changes over time initiate atherosclerosis. However, while a degree of atherosclerosis is found in a large majority of the population, its exact pathogenesis is still under debate. Typically, atherosclerosis begins in childhood with endothelial cells of the vessel wall, thought to be those associated with retained low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Liver is the organ where the vldl molecules are produced ldl particles are formed initially as vldl lipoproteins.
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The tunica intima is the innermost and thinnest layer, consisting of a monolayer of simple squamous endothelial cells on top of a basement membrane with minimal underlying extracellular matrix (ECM). The intima is separated from the next layer by a dense elastic membrane called the internal elastic lamina, which are circularly arranged bands. Tunica media of artery, the tunica media is the thickest layer of the arteries, and is composed predominantly of smooth muscle cells and ecm, surrounded by loose connective tissue, nerve fibers, and smaller vessels of the adventitia. Separating the media from the adventitia tadalafil is another elastic band known as the external elastic lamina. Tunica Adventitia of artery The tunica adventitia is the thickest layer in the veins, and is entirely composed of connective tissue. However, in large and medium-sized vessels, the adventitia contains nerves and small arterioles (nutrient capillaries called the " vasa vasorum literally, "vessels of the vessels that supply that vessel and the outer half to two thirds of the media. Additionally, arteries are divided into three types based on their size and structure: Large elastic arteries (e.g., aorta, arch vessels, iliac and pulmonary arteries ) - in this type, elastic fibers alternate with smooth muscle cells throughout the media, which expands during systole (storing some. This elasticity is increasingly lost with age.
a result of invasion and accumulation of white blood cells and proliferation of intimal smooth muscle cells that create a fibrofatty plaque. Atherosclerosis is thus a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels due to a chronic inflammatory response in the artery walls. While atherosclerosis often remains asymptomatic for decades, it can increase the risk of local thrombosis and distal embolization that can present clinically as myocardial infarction or stroke. Inner circular smooth muscle layer - histological slide. Recommended video: Coronary arteries and cardiac veins. Overview of the main coronary arteries and cardiac veins. Anatomy of Arteries, artery - histological slide, vessel walls of arteries and veins are organized into 3 concentric, similar layers : the tunica intima, the media and, the adventitia. However, the middle layer (tunica media) is thicker in arteries than in veins. Tunica intima of artery.